《世界环境公约》(草案)全文 | 中英文对照

编者按:5月10日联合国大会通过决议,正式开启了《世界环境公约》的谈判进程。联合国官方发布的消息显示,该决议获得了143票支持,6票反对(伊朗、菲律宾、俄罗斯联邦、叙利亚、土耳其、美国),6票弃权(白俄罗斯、马来西亚、尼加拉瓜、尼日利亚、沙特阿拉伯、塔吉克斯坦)。

作为中国领先的生态环保公益NGO(非政府组织),中国绿发会一直在通过生物多样性和可持续发展领域的各个环节推动积极参与全球环境治理、应对环境与气候变化,并走在相关工作前沿。包括倡导“生态‘一带一路’”(EBRs)等,积极协助我国参与全球治理,参与游戏规则制定,推动将“人类命运共同体”等写入《世界环境公约》等等。
现将《世界环境公约》(草案)2017年下半年的提交给联合国的草案版本分享如下,供有关专家学者研究参考。值得一提的是,这个版本很可能不是当前经过各缔约方博弈后的版本;也还远非最终版本。但我们相信,针对不同版本的发展脉络的研究仍然会非常有价值,因此平台发布。
这里要谈谈《世界环境公约》的起源和发展脉络。据IUCN世界环境法委员会(WCEL)委员、中国绿发会秘书长周晋峰博士介绍,2016年7月,法国宪法委员会主席洛朗·法比尤斯(Laurent Fabius)和主要起草者雅安•阿吉拉(Yann Aguila)进行了讨论,决定起草一个文件。当时有多种不同的想法:包括一是建议制定《世界环境公约》,但是不提供草案;二是也提供草案。在法语中这个草案叫做“劣势文本”(un texte martyr),因为未来它主动将被不断质疑、挑战,要被各方不断修改、充实入新的内容,以形成最终的文本。权衡再三后,最终仍决定提供了这样一个草案。周晋峰博士所在的IUCN世界环境法委员会(WCEL)深度参与了该草案有关进程。刚开始有100多条,最后在2017年6月减到了26条,也就是说下文这个版本。2017年9月,该草案经法国总统马克龙提交给了联合国。今年4月底,洛朗·法比尤斯已接受周晋峰博士(他同时也是北京大学习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想研究院的客座研究员)的邀请,将于今年夏季在北京大学就“人类命运共同体与世界环境公约”做主题演讲。欢迎持续关注中国绿发会微信公众号(ChinaGreenExpress)参与有关活动。
编者按/Linda  核/花花  编/Angel

(初步草案)
世界环境公约

PRELIMINARY DRAFT

GLOBAL PACT FOR THE ENVIRONMENT
序言

Preamble
本公约各缔约方,

The Parties to the present Pact,
意识到环境面临日益严峻的威胁,为更好地保护环境有必要在全世界采取协同一致、富有雄心的行动,

Acknowledging the growing threats to the environment and the need to act in an ambitious and concerted manner at the global level to better ensure its protection,
重申1972年6月16日在斯德哥尔摩通过的《联合国人类环境会议的宣言》、1982年10月28日通过的《世界自然宪章》以及1992年6月14日在里约热内卢通过的《联合国环境与发展大会的宣言》,

Reaffirming the Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, adopted in Stockholm on 16 June 1972, the World Charter for Nature adopted on 28 October 1982 and the Declaration of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, adopted in Rio on 14 June 1992,
重申坚持2015年9月25日联合国大会通过的可持续发展目标,

Recalling their commitment to the Sustainable Development Goals adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 25 September 2015,
考虑到应对气候变化问题的紧迫性,重申1992年5月9日在纽约通过的《联合国气候变化框架公约》以及2015年12月12日通过的《巴黎协定》确定的目标,

Considering in particular the urgency to tackle climate change and recalling the objectives set by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change adopted in New York on 9 May 1992 and the Paris Agreement of 12December 2015,
注意到地球正前所未有地丧失其生物多样性,

Observing that the planet is facing an unprecedented loss of its biodiversity requiring urgent action,
需要我们采取紧急行动重申在开发利用自然资源时必须保证生态系统拥有恢复能力并继续提供服务,从而维护地球上生命的多样性,并促进全人类福祉和贫困的消除,

Reaffirming the need to ensure, while using natural resources, that ecosystems are resilient and continue to provide essential services, thereby preserving the diversity of life on Earth, and contribute to human well-being and the eradication of poverty,
意识到地球上的生命所面临的威胁是全球性的,需要所有国家,需要所有国家根据共同但有区别的责任和各自能力,并鉴于其国情最大程度地进行合作的责任和各自能力,并鉴于其国情最大程度地进行合作的责任和各自能力,并鉴于其国情最大程度地进行合作参与适宜、有效的国际行动,

Acknowledging that the global nature of threats to the Earth’s community of life requires that all States cooperate as closely as possible and participate in an international, effective and appropriate action according to their common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in light of their different national circumstances,
决心推进既满足当代人需求,又不损害后代人满足自身需求之能力,且尊重地球生态系统的平衡和完整性的可持续发展,

Determined to promote a sustainable development that allows each generation to satisfy its needs without compromising the capability of future generation to meet theirs, while respecting the balance and integrity of the Earth’s ecosystem,
强调女性在可持续发展中扮演的关键角色,并强调促进男女平等和女性自主独立的必要性,

Emphasizing the vital role of women in sustainable development matters and the need to promote gender equality and the empowerment of women,
意识到必须尊重、促进并充分考虑到各国面对在其管辖下的本地居民、当地社群、移民、儿童、残疾人士及脆弱群体所应承担的人权、健康权方面的义务,

Conscious of the need to respect, promote and consider their respective obligations on human rights, the right to health, the rights and knowledge of indigenous peoples, local communities, migrants, children, persons with disabilities and people in vulnerable situation, under their jurisdiction,
欣见非国家行为主体,包括民间社会、经济主体、城市、地区以及其它国家内部机构,在环境保护中扮演着至关重要的角色,

Welcoming the vital role of non State actors, including civil society, economic actors, cities, regions and other subnational authorities in the protection of the environment,
强调教育与科学对于可持续发展的根本重要性,

Stressing the fundamental importance of science and education for sustainable development,
有意愿以代内公平和代际公平为指引开展行动,

Mindful of conducting actions guided by intragenerational and intergenerational equity,
表明有必要采取共同立场和若干原则以启发和指引各国保护和维护环境之努力,

Affirming the need to adopt a common position and principles that will inspire and guide the efforts of all to protect and preserve the environment,
兹协议如下:

Have agreed as follows:
第一条

Article 1

享受健康生态环境的权利

Right to an ecologically sound environment
所有人都有权生活在一个有利于其健康、幸福、尊严、文化和自我发展的健康生态环境中。

Every person has the right to live in an ecologically sound environment adequate for their health, well-being, dignity, culture and fulfilment.
第二条

Article 2

养护环境的义务

Duty to take care of the environment
任何国家或国际机构、自然人或法人,无论公私,都有养护环境的义务。为此,每个人都要在各自层面为维持、保护和修复完整的地球生态系统做出贡献。

Every State or international institution, every person, natural or legal, public or private,has the duty to take care of the environment. To this end, everyone contributes at their own levels to the conservation, protection and restoration of the integrity of the Earth’s ecosystem.
第三条

Article 3

将可持续发展纳入政策

Integration and sustainable development
各缔约方应将保护环境的要求纳入到国家、国际政策与活动的制定和实施当中,以推进气候失序应对、海洋保护和生物多样性保护等工作。

Parties shall integrate the requirements of environmental protection into the planning and implementation of their policies and national and international activities, especially in order to promote the fight against climate change, the protection of oceans and the maintenance of biodiversity.
各缔约方承诺谋求可持续发展。为此,各方应推动环保、可持续的公共扶持政策和生产、消费方式。

They shall pursue sustainable development. To this end, they shall ensure the promotion of public support policies, patterns of production and consumption both sustainable and respectful of the environment.
第四条

Article 4

代际公平

Intergenerational Equity
对环境有可能造成影响的决策,应以代际公平原则为指引。

Intergenerational equity shall guide decisions that may have an impact on the environment.
当代人应该确保其决策和行为不损害后代人满足自身需求的能力。

Present generations shall ensure that their decisions and actions do not compromise the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
第五条

Article 5

预防

Prevention
应采取必要措施来预防对环境造成的损害。

The necessary measures shall be taken to prevent environmental harm.
各缔约方应确保在其管辖权范围内或受其控制的活动不会对其它缔约方领土或国家管辖范围以外区域的环境造成损害。

The Parties have the duty to ensure that activities under their jurisdiction or control do not cause damage to the environments of other Parties or in areas beyond the limits of their national jurisdiction.
各缔约方采取必要措施,在作出批准或启动有可能对环境造成重大负面影响的项目、活动、计划或方案的决定之前先完成环境影响评估。

They shall take the necessary measures to ensure that an environmental impact assessment is conducted prior to any decision made to authorize or engage in a project, an activity, a plan, or a program that is likely to have a significant adverse impact on the environment.
特别地,各国应根据其勤勉义务,密切监督所有上述其批准或启动的项目、活动、计划或方案所产生的后续影响。

In particular, States shall keep under surveillance the effect of an above-mentioned project, activity, plan, or program which they authorize or engage in, in view of their obligation of due diligence.
第六条

Article 6

谨慎原则

Precaution
如果存在对环境造成严重或不可逆损害的风险,不能以尚无确凿科学证据为由推迟采取预防环境损害的有效、恰当措施。

Where there is a risk of serious or irreversible damage, lack of scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing the adoption of effective and proportionate measures to prevent environmental degradation.
第七条

Article 7

对环境的损害

Environmental Damages
应采取必要措施确保对环境损害进行合适的修复。

The necessary measures shall be taken to ensure an adequate remediation of environmental damages.
各缔约方应将任何可能对他国环境带来突然性损害影响的自然灾害或紧急情况立即告知相关国家。各缔约方应立即开展合作以帮助相关国家。

Parties shall immediately notify other States of any natural disasters or other emergencies that are likely to produce sudden harmful effects on the environment of those States. Parties shall promptly cooperate to help concerned States.
第八条

Article 8

谁污染谁付费

Polluter-Pays
各缔约方确保,污染以及其它任何环境扰动或损害的预防、减缓和修复成本应尽可能由导致上述污染、扰动或损害的方面来承担。

Parties shall ensure that prevention, mitigation and remediation costs for pollution, and other environmental disruptions and degradation are, to the greatest possible extent, borne by their originator.

第九条

Article 9

公众知情权

Access to information
任何人无需证明自己是利益相关方即有权查看政府部门掌握的环境信息。

Every person, without being required to state an interest, has a right of access to environmental information held by public authorities.
政府部门应根据本国法律法规,收集相关的环境信息并供公众查阅。

Public authorities shall, within the framework of their national legislations, collect and make available to the public relevant environmental information.
第十条

Article 10

公众参与

Public participation
只要最终选择尚未作出,所有人皆有权在合适的阶段参与制定有可能对环境造成重大影响之政府部门的决策、措施、计划、方案、活动、政策和标准。

Every person has the right to participate, at an appropriate stage and while options are still open, to the preparation of decisions, measures, plans, programmes, activities, policies and normative instruments of public authorities that may have a significant effect on the environment.
第十一条

Article 11

获得环境司法保障的权利

Access to environmental justice
各缔约方确保,当政府部门或私人主体出现违反环境法的疏忽或其它行为时,任何人皆有权在考虑到本公约内容的情况下,获得有效且费用合理的司法保障,通过司法和行政程序提出反对。

Parties shall ensure the right of effective and affordable access to administrative and judicial procedures, including redress and remedies, to challenge acts or omissions of public authorities or private persons which contravene environmental law, taking into consideration the provisions of the present Pact.
第十二条

Article 12

教育和培训

Education and training
各缔约方确保尽可能向年青一代及成年人就环境问题进行教育宣传,让每个人都具有保护和改善环境的责任意识。

The Parties shall ensure that environmental education, to the greatest possible extent, is taught to members of the younger generation as well as to adults, in order to inspire in everyone a responsible conduct in protecting and improving the environment.
各缔约方确保保护有关环境问题的言论和信息自由。各方应促进关于生态系统和环境保护必要性的有教育性质的相关信息通过大众信息渠道的传播。

The Parties shall ensure the protection of freedom of expression and information in environmental matters. They support the dissemination by mass media of information of an educational nature on ecosystems and on the need to protect and preserve the environment.
第十三条

Article 13

研究和创新

Research and innovation
各缔约方应尽可能推动有关生态系统和人类活动对环境影响的科学认识的发展。

The Parties shall promote, to the best of their ability, the improvement of scientific knowledge of ecosystems and the impact of human activities.
各缔约方应展开合作,交流科技知识、促进环保技术包括相关创新技术的研发、调整、传播和转让。

They shall cooperate through exchanges of scientific and technological knowledge and by enhancing the development, adaptation, dissemination and transfer of technologies respectful of the environment, including innovative technologies.
第十四条

Article 14

非国家行为主体和国家内部机构扮演的角色

Role of non-State actors and subnational entities
各缔约方,鉴于非国家行为主体和国内机构,包括民间社会、经济主体、城市和地区等在保护环境中发挥着至关重要的作用,采取必要措施鼓励其实施本公约。

The Parties shall take the necessary measures to encourage the implementation of this Pact by non-State actors and subnational entities, including civil society, economic actors, cities and regions taking into account their vital role in the protection of the environment.
第十五条

Article 15

环境标准的有效性

Effectiveness of environmental norms
各缔约方有义务通过有效的环保标准,[1] 并确保这些标准的实施,保证标准得到公平、有效的执行。

The Parties have the duty to adopt effective environmental laws, and to ensure their effective and fair implementation and enforcement.
第十六条

Article 16

复原能力

Resilience
各缔约方采取必要措施,以保护和恢复生态系统及人类群体的多样性,使其在面对环境损害、扰动时有抵御、恢复和适应的能力。

The Parties shall take necessary measures to maintain and restore the diversity and capacity of ecosystems and human communities to withstand environmental disruptions and degradation and to recover and adapt.
第十七条

Article 17

不倒退

Non-regression
各缔约方及各缔约国的国内机构不批准或通过会降低现行法律保障之环境保护整体水平的活动和标准。

The Parties and their sub-national entities refrain from allowing activities or adopting norms that have the effect of reducing the global level of environmental protection guaranteed by current law.
第十八条

Article 18

合作

Cooperation
为了维持、保护、修复地球生态系统以及地球生命群体的完整性,各缔约方应本着团结互助和全球合作的精神,精诚合作,以确保本公约各项条款的实施。

In order to conserve, protect and restore the integrity of the Earth’s ecosystem and community of life, Parties shall cooperate in good faith and in a spirit of global partnership for the implementation of the provisions of the present Pact.
第十九条

Article 19

武装冲突

Armed conflicts
各国应依照其国际法义务,采取一切可能措施,保护受到武装冲突威胁的自然环境。

States shall take pursuant to their obligations under international law all feasible measures to protect the environment in relation to armed conflicts.
第二十条

Article 20

国情多样性

Diversity of national situations
发展中国家,特别是最不发达国家以及环境最脆弱国家,其特殊情况和需求应该受到特别关注。

The special situation and needs of developing countries, particularly the least developed and those most environmentally vulnerable, shall be given special attention.
鉴于各国国情不同,共同但有区别的责任和各自能力应在有充分依据时得以遵守。

Account shall be taken, where appropriate, of the Parties’ common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in light of different national circumstances.
第二十一条

Article 21

本公约实施的监督

Monitoring of the implementation of the Pact
应建立监督机制,为本公约条款的实施提供便利,推动公约的遵守。

A compliance mechanism to facilitate implementation of, and to promote compliance with, the provisions of the present Pact is hereby established.
该机制由一个独立专家委员会构成,其主要任务是为公约的实施提供便利。委员会以透明、不指责、不惩罚的方式运作。委员会特别考虑到各缔约国各自的国情和能力。

This mechanism consists of a Committee of independent experts and focuses on facilitation. It operates in a transparent, non-adversarial and non-punitive manner. The committee shall pay particular attention to the respective national circumstances and capabilities of the Parties.
在本公约生效一年后,公约保存人将召集缔约方大会,以商定专家委员会履行职能的方式和程序。

One year after the entry into force of the present Pact, the Depositary shall convene ameeting of the Parties which will establish the modalities and procedures by which the Committee shall exercise its functions.
自专家委员会履职起两年后,各缔约方将按照缔约方会议确定的一个不得超过四年的周期,定期向专家委员会汇报各自在本公约实施中取得的进展。

Two years after the Committee takes office, and at a frequency to be determined by the meeting of the Parties, not exceeding four years, each Party shall report to the Committee on its progress in implementing the provisions of the Pact.
第二十二条

Article 22

秘书处

Secretariat
本公约秘书处工作由联合国秘书长(或联合国环境署执行主任)负责。

The Secretariat of the present Pact shall be provided by the Secretary-General of the United Nations [or the Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Program].
联合国秘书长(或联合国环境署执行主任)必要时可召集缔约方大会。

The Secretary-General [or the Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Program] convenes in as much as necessary meeting of Parties.
第二十三条

Article 23

公约的签署、批准、接受、核准、加入

Signature, ratification, acceptance, approval, accession
本公约开放供签署,由各国和国际组织批准、接受或核准。本公约自***至***在纽约联合国总部开放供签署,自其开放签署截止日之次日起开放供加入。批准、接受、核准或加入的文书应交存于保存入。

The present Pact shall be open for signature and subject to ratification, acceptance or approval by States and international organizations. It shall be open for signature at the United Nations Headquarters in New York from XXX to XXX and shall be open for accession from the day following the date on which it shall cease to be open for signature. Instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession shall be deposited with the Depositary.
第二十四条

Article 24

生效

Coming into force
本公约应自其批准、接受、核准或加入的文书向联合国秘书长**交存之日起三个月之后生效。

The present Pact shall enter into force three months after the date of deposit with the Secretary-General of the United Nations of the XX instrument of ratification, approval, acceptance or accession.
对于在上述第1款中规定的生效条件达到之后批准、接受、核准或加入本公约的每一国家或区域国际组织,本公约应自其批准、接受、核准或加入的文书交存之日后第九十天起生效。[2]

For each State and international organization ratifying, approving, accepting or acceding to the present Pact after the deposit of the XX instrument of ratification or accession, the Pact shall enter into force three months after the date of deposit by that State of its instrument of ratification or accession.
第二十五条

Article 25

退约

Denunciation
自本公约对一缔约方生效之日起三年后,该缔约方可随时向保存人发出书面通知退出本公约。

On the expiry of a period of three years from the date of entry into force of this Treaty in respect of a Party, that Party may at any time denounce it by written notification to the Depositary.
此种退出应自保存人收到退出通知之日起一年期满时生效,或在退出通知中所述明的更后日期生效。

Such denunciation shall take effect on the expiry of a period of one year from the date of receipt by the Depositary of such notification, or on such later date as may be specified in such notification.
第二十六条

Article 26

保存人

Depositary
本公约的原件,包括英文、阿拉伯文、中文、西班牙文、法文、俄文版本,由联合国秘书长保存,不同语言版本同等作准。

The original of this Treaty, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
Linda注:

[1] 此处官方文件译为了“标准”(norm),笔者认为不妥,译为标准在中文话语体系里面有更宽泛的意思。建议译为“法律”更妥。

[2] 此处宜译为“三个月之后生效”。

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